Preposition and Types of Preposition

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PREPOSITION

DEFINITION

A preposition is a word that indicates the relationship between a noun or pronoun and the other words of a sentence.

  • I am going to Canada.
  • Alex threw a stone into the pond.
  • The present is inside the box.
  • They have gone out of the town.

TYPES OF PREPOSITION

I. Prepositions of Time 

Prepositions of time show the relationship of time between the nouns to the other parts of a sentence.

On, at, in, from, to, for, since, ago, before, till/until, by, etc. are the most common preposition of time.

Example:

  • He started working at 10 AM.
  • The company called meeting on 25 October.
  • There is a holiday in December.
  • He has been ill since Monday.

II. Prepositions of Place and Direction

Prepositions of place show the relationship of place between the nouns to the other parts of a sentence.

On, at, in, by, from, to, towards, up, down, across, between, among, through, in front of, behind, above, over, under, below, etc. are the most common prepositions of place/direction.

Example:

  • He is at home.
  • He came from England.
  • The police broke into the house.
  • I live across the river.

III. Prepositions of Agents or Things

Prepositions of agents or things indicate a casual relationship between nouns and other parts of the sentence.

Of, for, by, with, about, etc. are the most used and common prepositions of agents or things.

Example:

  • This article is about smartphones.
  • Most of the guests have already left.
  • I will always be here for you.
  • He is playing with his brothers.

IV.  Phrasal Prepositions

phrasal preposition is not a prepositional phrase, but they are a combination of two or more words which functions as a preposition.

Along with, apart from, because of, by means of, according to, in front of, contrary to, in spite of, on account of, in reference to, in addition to, in regard to, instead of, on top of, out of, with regard to, etc. are the most common phrasal prepositions.

Example:

  • They along with their children went to Atlanta.
  • According to the new rules, you are not right.

  • In spite of being a good player, he was not selected.
  • I’m going out of the city.
  • USAGE OF PREPOSITIONS

    Prepositions are the most confusing and difficult part of grammar because almost every definition of a preposition has exceptions and different meanings. There is no better technique to grasp the correct use of prepositions other than practicing to picture how each preposition functions in certain contexts. There are some certain common uses and expressions of different prepositions.

    PREPOSITIONS OF TIME USAGE

    Prepositions of time show the relationship of time between the nouns to the other parts of a sentence.

    Common preposition of time: On, at, in, from, to, for, since, ago, before, till/until, by, etc. are the most common.

    AT, ON, IN

    AT:

    At always indicates an exact and specific time.

    Example:

    • I started working at 10 AM.
    • The movie starts at 6 PM.
    • The shop closes at 3AM.

    Note: Exceptions are that we say – at the weekend, at night, at Chrismas, at Easter, at the moment, etc.

    ON:

    On generally indicates a fixed date or a day.

    Example:

    • I’ll see her on Friday.
    • He broke a record on Monday morning.
    • I have a meeting on 25 October.

    IN:

    In generally indicates an indefinite and unspecific time of months, seasons, years, centuries, etc.

    Example:

    • I will get a holiday in December.
    • Murphy was born in 2001.
    • I love playing cricket in summer.

    FROM….TO,  UNTIL,  SINCE,  FOR

    FROM….TO:

    From….to indicates a fixed time-span with the beginning and the end.

     

    Example:

    • I worked there from 2010 to 2017.
    • I usually work from Saturday to Thursday.
    • I will stay there from 10 AM to 6 PM.

    UNTIL/TILL:

    Until/till indicates a specific or unspecific time/event up to a point.

    Example:

    • They will not return until Friday.  
    • Wait for me until I return.
    • I do not give up until I am succeeded.
    • I will be there until Monday.

    SINCE:

    Since indicates a time-span beginning in a time in the past and still continuing in the present (now).

    Example:

    • Alex has been in the village since Sunday.
    • He has been suffering from fever since Friday.
    • Robin and Susan have been friends since childhood.

    FOR:

    For indicates a period of time (amount of time) in the past, present or future.

    Example:

    • He stayed there for four days.
    • I will be staying there for five months.
    • I will work with them for a year.
    • He was standing there for a long time.

    BEFORE, AFTER, DURING, BY

    BEFORE:

    Before indicates a prior event/ period of time from a point.

    Example:

    • Robin was very nervous before the interview.
    • I want to leave before lunch.
    • These batsmen should not get out before the tea break.
    • Before going, close all the window.

    AFTER:

    After indicates a following event/period of time from a point. This preposition is the exact opposite of before.

    Example:

    • Robin felt confident after the interview.
    • I want to leave after lunch.
    • After playing football, we went home.

    DURING:

    During indicates a period of time throughout the course or duration of any event or action.

    Example:

    • Robert was sleeping during the film.
    • They don’t talk during dinner.
    • I don’t usually smoke during office time.

    BY:

    By means ‘within the extent or period of; during’ something.

    Example:

     

    • I will complete the assignment by Sunday.
    • He will return by 6 PM.
    • I will submit the list by 11 AM.

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