school community and teacher
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School Community & Teacher

Here one can find notes regarding the subject School Community and Teacher. This subject is very vast in its scope. But it is very useful for the students of B.Ed, M.Ed or Teacher Education Students.  For more notes of the subjects CLICK HERE

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Definition of School

A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students’ progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below) but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is commonly called a university college or university, but these higher education institutions are usually not compulsory.

In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also attend schools before and after primary (Elementary in the US) and secondary (Middle school in the US) education. Kindergarten or preschool provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3–5). Universityvocational schoolcollege or seminary may be available after secondary school. A school may be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods.

There are also non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be required when the government does not supply adequate, or special education. Other private schools can also be religious, such as Christian schoolsmadrasahawzas (Shi'a schools), yeshivas (Jewish schools), and others; or schools that have a higher standard of education or seek to foster other personal achievements. Schools for adults include institutions of corporate trainingmilitary education and training and business schools.

In home schooling and online schools, teaching and learning take place outside a traditional school building. Schools are commonly organized in several different organizational models, including departmental, small learning communities, academies, integrated, and schools-within-a-school.

Structure of School

Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development. Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law".

The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into six levels: preschool (for the age from 3 to 5 years), primary (grades one through five), middle (grades six through eight), high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC), intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate or HSSC), and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees.

Function of School

School in the modern time is treated as the most suitable, active and formal agency of education. As per the changing need of the hour, school develops and grows with its specific goals. It is emerged out of the demand for education and pressure on the parents regarding their educational pursuit.

The word ‘School’ has been derived from the Greek word ‘Skhole’ that means leisure. It was before in the ancient Greece to utilize leisure time in a systematic way. But now this concept has changed to prime time activity. It is an essential investment field now on which the entire superstructure of life of the individual and nation will build.

Main Function of School

(1) Conservation and promotion culture

The school conserves the valuable culture, tradition, values of the society and helps in promoting and developing these with the rolling of the time. It also spreads the store of culture to the next generation.

(2) All-round development of the individual

For all-round development of the individual school has a package of programmes. Through its different activities, it draws out the hidden potentialities of the child and develops them in a proper way.

(3) Development of higher values of life

School helps in developing and cultivating good and higher values like truth, sympathy, love, cooperation, etc. in child. Through different social interactions and moral teachings, it spreads the message of righteous living in a society.

(4) Development of social responsibility

School is called a society in miniature. Because in schoolchild shares his feelings with various children coming from different strata. So he learns the lessons of social duty, responsibilities and understanding the feelings of others. So school helps in social change and social control.

(5) Citizenship Training

School creates the first civic society for the child. So child learns the duty and civic rights for the country as a responsible citizen. So school trains the lessons of citizenship to a child.

(6) Adjustability in Society

School prepares child to face the problems of the society. So proper adjustment and application of learned knowledge can be checked and guided by school. So the main function of the school is to develop adjustment capacity of an individual.

(7) Vocational Training

Through different activities, school provides training in different vocations. It also cultivates the values of dignity of work and labor. It prepares children to face any challenge in the future to solve their bare necessities.

The role of school cannot be confined with these lines. In modern days, the role of school has been increasing day by day. It is called the hub of learning. Every developed state gives first priority to the schools for total national development. Really, school is now a prestigious institution in the society, which can be called a man-making factory.

Definition of Community

A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as normsreligionvaluescustoms, or identity. Communities may share a sense of place situated in a given geographical area (e.g. a country, village, town, or neighborhood) or in virtual space through communication platforms. Durable relations that extend beyond immediate genealogical ties also define a sense of community, important to their identity, practice, and roles in social institutions such as family, home, work, government, society, or humanity at large. Although communities are usually small relative to personal social ties, "community" may also refer to large group affiliations such as national communitiesinternational communities, and virtual communities.

The English-language word "community" derives from the Old French comuneté, which comes from the Latin communitas "community", "public spirit" (from Latin communis, "common").

Human communities may share intentbeliefresourcespreferencesneeds, and risks in common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness.

Socrates had said about the person who is independent of his fellow beings and is unable to live in community or society is either Beast or God. Community is the combination of two Latin words i.e. ‘cam’ means together and ‘munis’ means serve i.e. .serve together is called community.

Bogardes: It is a social group with some degree of “we feeling and living in a given area”

Ogburn: “Total organization of social life with in a limited area”

Definition of community according to Davis: “It is the smallest territorial group that can embrace all aspects of social life”

Bertrand definition of community is a functionally related aggregate of people who live in a particular geographical locality at a particular time, show a common culture, are arranged in a social structure, exhibit an awareness of their uniqueness and separate identity as a group.

“A set of interrelationships among social institutions in a locality” (Bell and Newby, p.19).

“A community is said to exist when interaction between individuals has the purpose of meeting individual needs and obtaining group goals…a limited geographical area is another feature…the features of social interaction, structures for the gratification of physical, social and physical needs, and limited geographical area are basic to the definitions of community.” (Sussman, in Bell and Newby, pp. 29 and 30).

“Community is, first, a place, and second, a configuration as a way of life, both as to how people do things and what they want, to say, their institutions and goals” (Kaufman in Bell and Newby, p. 30).

“Community is a number of families residing in a relatively small area within which they have developed a more or less complete socio-cultural definitions imbued with collective identifications and by means of which they resolve problems arising from the sharing of an area” (Sutton and Kolaja, in Bell and Newby, p. 31).

“Community refers to a structure of relationships through which a localized population provides its daily requirements” (Hawley in Bell and Newby, p. 34).

“Community is a collection of people who share a common territory and meet their basic physical and social needs through daily interaction with one another” (in Allan Johnson, Human Arrangements, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers: Orlando, 1986, p. 692).

“Community is a social group with a common territorial base; those in the group share interests and have a sense of belonging to the group” (Robert Stebbins, Sociology. The Study of Society,  Harper and Row: New York, 1987, p. 534).

“Community is a body of people living in the same locality…Alternatively, a sense of identity and belonging shared among people living in the same locality…, Also, the set of social relations found in a particular bounded area” (Sylvia Dale, Controversies in Sociology. A Canadian Introduction, Copp, Clark and Pitman: Toronto, 1990, p. 562).

Structure of Community

Community structure means the internal structure of an employment area, town, city, neighbourhood or another urban area. It includes the population and housing, jobs and production, service and leisure time areas, along with transport routes and technical networks, their location and relationships.

Communities are complex entities that can be characterized by their structure (the types and numbers of species present) and dynamics (how communities change over time). Understanding community structure and dynamics enables community ecologists to manage ecosystems more effectively.

Function of Community

A community cannot exist unless members demonstrate a concern for one another, which results in a maturing of both the individual and the community as a whole. Asbury University promotes a community which is characterized by three interdependent functions: Caring, Collaborating and Challenging.

  • Caring: As we follow in the steps of Jesus Christ and His teachings, we will demonstrate a love for those around us which is evident in our caring, “carrying” and comforting of one another. Practically speaking, our concern for others will go beyond the obvious spiritual and physical realms into the emotional, mental and social realms. This concern for the development of the whole person emphasizes our commitment to develop whole people who are wholly prepared to be wholly used of God.

  • Collaborating: Any effective organization is distinguished by the way in which its component parts work together to achieve the ultimate mission. Asbury’s mission is to provide students with the opportunity to learn in a Christian, liberal arts environment and to prepare them to make a significant contribution in their world for Jesus Christ. A team approach where there is a collegial and collaborative effort between administration, faculty, students and staff results in a cooperating community where the whole is greater than and more important than any of its component parts.

  • Challenging: The heritage of the University has always held high expectations for its members and expected them to maintain both their own character and the University’s character. Our love for one another motivates us to encourage and, when appropriate, challenge each other as we strive together to achieve God’s purpose for our lives. Redemptive accountability brings one to repentance, forgiveness, accountability and growth.

Definition of Teacher

A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone (e.g. when showing a colleague how to perform a specific task). In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family (homeschooling), rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college. Some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching (e.g. youth worker, pastor). In most countries, formal teaching of students is usually carried out by paid professional teachers. This article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training.

Function of Teacher

Broadly speaking, the function of teachers is to help students learn by imparting knowledge to them and by setting up a situation in which students can and will learn effectively. But teachers fill a complex set of roles, which vary from one society to another and from one educational level to another.

1. The Controller: The teacher is in complete charge of the class, what students do, what they say and how they say it. The teacher assumes this role when a new language is being introduced and accurate reproduction and drilling techniques are needed.

In this classroom, the teacher is mostly the center of focus, the teacher may have the gift of instruction, and can inspire through their own knowledge and expertise, but, does this role really allow for enough student talk time? Is it really enjoyable for the learners? There is also a perception that this role could have a lack of variety in its activities.

  1. The Prompter:The teacher encourages students to participate and makes suggestions about how students may proceed in an activity. The teacher should be helping students only when necessary.

When learners are literally ‘lost for words’, the prompter can encourage by discreetly nudging students. Students can sometimes lose the thread or become unsure how to proceed; the prompter in this regard can prompt but always in a supportive way.

  1. The Resource: The teacher is a kind of walking resource center ready to offer help if needed, or provide learners with whatever language they lack when performing communicative activities. The teacher must make her/himself available so that learners can consult her/him when (and only when) it is absolutely necessary.

As a resource the teacher can guide learners to use available resources such as the internet, for themselves, it certainly isn’t necessary to spoon-feed learners, as this might have the downside of making learners reliant on the teacher.

  1. The Assessor:The teacher assumes this role to see how well students are performing or how well they performed. Feedback and correction are organized and carried out.

There are a variety of ways we can grade learners, the role of an assessor gives teachers an opportunity to correct learners. However, if it is not communicated with sensitivity and support it could prove counter-productive to a student’s self-esteem and confidence in learning the target language.

  1. The Organizer:Perhaps the most difficult and important role the teacher has to play. The success of many activities depends on good organization and on the students knowing exactly what they are to do next. Giving instructions is vital in this role as well as setting up activities.

The organizer can also serve as a demonstrator, this role also allows a teacher to get involved and engaged with learners. The teacher also serves to open and neatly close activities and also give content feedback.

  1. The Participant:This role improves the atmosphere in the class when the teacher takes part in an activity. However, the teacher takes a risk of dominating the activity when performing it.

Here the teacher can enliven a class; if a teacher is able to stand back and not become the center of attention, it can be a great way to interact with learners without being too overpowering.

  1. The Tutor:The teacher acts as a coach when students are involved in project work or self-study. The teacher provides advice and guidance and helps students clarify ideas and limit tasks.

This role can be a great way to pay individual attention to a student. It can also allow a teacher to tailor make a course to fit specific student needs. However, it can also lead to a student becoming too dependent or even too comfortable with one teacher and one method or style of teaching.

Duties and Responsibilities of a Teacher

  1. Knowledge of the Subject

  • To have expert knowledge of the subject area

  • To pursue relevant opportunities to grow professionally and keep up-to-date about the current knowledge and research in the subject area 

  1. Teaching

  • To plan and prepare appropriately the assigned courses and lectures

  • To conduct assigned classes at the scheduled times

  • To demonstrate competence in classroom instruction

  • To implement the designated curriculum completely and in due time

  • To plan and implement effective classroom management practices

  • To design and implement effective strategies to develop self-responsible/independent learners

  • To promote students’ intrinsic motivation by providing meaningful and progressively challenging learning experiences which include, but are not limited to: self-exploration, questioning, making choices, setting goals, planning and organizing, implementing, self-evaluating and demonstrating initiative in tasks and projects

  • To engage students in active, hands-on, creative problem-based learning

  • To provide opportunities for students to access and use current technology, resources and information to solve problems

  • To provides opportunities for students to apply and practice what is learned

  • To engage students in creative thinking and integrated or interdisciplinary learning experiences

  • To build students’ ability to work collaboratively with others

  • To adapt instruction/support to students’ differences in development, learning styles, strengths and needs

  • To vary instructional roles (e.g. instructor, coach, facilitator, co-learner, audience) in relation to content and purpose of instruction and students’ needs

  • To maintain a safe, orderly environment conducive to learning

  • To comply with requirements for the safety and supervision of students inside and outside the classroom 

  1. Assessment

  • To define and communicate learning expectations to students

  • To apply appropriate multiple assessment tools and strategies to evaluate and promote the continuous intellectual development of the students

  • To assign reasonable assignments and homework to students as per university rules

  • To evaluate students’ performances in an objective, fair and timely manner

  • To record and report timely the results of quizzes, assignments, mid- and final semester exams

  • To use student assessment data to guide changes in instruction and practice, and to improve student learning

  1. Professionalism

  • To be punctual and be available in the university during official working hours

  • To comply with policies, standards, rules, regulations and procedures of the university

  • To prepare and maintain course files

  • To take precautions to protect university records, equipment, materials, and facilities

  • To participate responsibly in university improvement initiatives

  • To attend and participate in faculty meetings and other assigned meetings and activities according to university policy

  • To demonstrate timeliness and attendance for assigned responsibilities

  • To work collaboratively with other professionals and staff

  • To participate in partnerships with other members of the university’s community to support student learning and university-related activities

  • To demonstrate the ability to perform teaching or other responsibilities, including good work habits, reliability, punctuality and follow-through on commitments

  • To provide and accept evaluative feedback in a professional manner

  • To create and maintain a positive and safe learning environment

  • To carry out any other related duties assigned by the department chairman

  1. Good Behaviour

  • To model honesty, fairness and ethical conduct

  • To model a caring attitude and promote positive inter-personal relationships

  • To model correct use of language, oral and written

  • To foster student self-control, self-discipline and responsibility to others

  • To model and promote empathy, compassion and respect for the gender, ethnic, religious, cultural and learning diversity of students

  • To demonstrate skill when managing student behaviour, intervening and resolving discipline problems

  • To model good social skills, leadership and civic responsibility 

  1. Specific Deadlines



Course Specifications

During the first lecture of the course, course specifications should be shared with the students

Class Activity Report

Class activity report must be prepared for each class lecture and placed in the course file

Course File

Course file for each course must be kept updated all the time for periodic review by the Chairman and random checks by the QAD


After every 8 weeks of the semester, a copy of the attendance summary sheet must be displayed on notice board and a copy should be placed in the course file.


Within one week of every quiz, a copy of the result must be displayed on notice board and a copy should be placed in the course file. (Note: Quizzes/Assignments should be equally distributed before and after the mid exam).


Within one week of receiving every assignment, a copy of the result must be displayed on notice board and a copy should be placed in the course file.

Mid Semester Exam

Within one week of the exam, a copy of the result must be displayed on notice board and a copy should be placed in the course file.

Final Attendance Report

A copy of the final student attendance report must be submitted to COE office before the end-semester examination

Setting of Mid & Final Papers

All examination papers should be set from within the prescribed course made known to the students by the teacher.

End Semester Exam

Within one week of the exam, submit the comprehensive results to the controller of examination along with answer-sheets of mid and end-semester exams.


Individual Status in the Society


‘Status’ is the position that an individual is expected to hold in a group or a community; and the behaviour that we expect from the person holding such a person is his ‘role’. Society itself works out into an orderly division of labour by giving different persons different positions in it and assigning to each such position of behaviour that would generally be expected of such person.

Rights and duties conferred by society upon a particular status would be typified and impersonal, and never personalized. We would, therefore, have a common idea of the role that any woman would have to play if she were to occupy the status of a mother, and, similarly, an impersonal standard of behaviour is expected of a student, a teacher, an office executive or the person who holds the status of the highest executive in the country.

Sociologists find that status can be mainly of two types: ‘ascribed’ or inherited land ‘achieved’ or acquired. If an individual’s status is determined at his birth, it would be regarded as an ascribed status. Birth determines the sex and age of the child finally and conclusively, as also his ethnic and family background. While age is a changing factor in life, the, others remain unchanged; and in the United States a baby born into a black family will have certain limitations which the white baby will not suffer from.

Similarly, in India, being born a female is still quite a disadvantage in large parts nor the country, although we have a legal guarantee as to the equality of the sexes. Again, in our country, birth in a particular caste among the Hindus is clearly an inherited status and the question of changing it in his life time is virtually as absurdity.

An individual may be born into a status, as when he is born rich or poor, but he may ‘acquire’ another status in his life time with the exercise of his ability, skill or knowledge. If society can be divided into several economic classes or divisions as we shall look up in a later chapter people may be poor, rich or of the middle category.

With his own ability, or the lack of it, one who is born into any of such statuses may change in his life time to another status. In an industrial society, different specialized occupations have been made available to persons without any regard to their ethnic or family backgrounds and, in modern times, even sex is no barrier to holding a specialized position.

However, achieved statuses will be important in such societies only which are not very rigid about maintaining the differences between inherited statuses; and on the question of rigidity no uniform observation can be made, since standards, norms and ideas vary from one status to another. However, now that inherited as well as acquired statuses are important in most societies, we can even talk in terms of ‘multiple statuses’.

An average middle-class man is at home husband and father; and in public life he may be an educationist, a debater and an actor on the stage besides being a TV newsreader. He may also be an important member of a social club and an assistant in his wife’s boutique business.

However, he may not be as efficient in role playing in a particular status as he may be in respect of another. He may be an excellent educationist, a good actor but a poor executive in a commercial office. The number of statuses in which the individual will have to play roles will be determined by the type of society that he belongs to. In a simple society, status tends to remain inherited and simple; in a complex one, multiple statuses are quite in order as is the concept of the acquired status.


In some sense of the word or the other, every individual adorning a status has to play a role as if he were dramatizing it. An individual’s role is the behaviour expected of him in his status and in the determination of his relationship with other members of his group.

The expectancy as to the standard of behaviour is so conscious and well-defined that the person playing it has little independence to waver away from it; and, in this sense, he in society is like the actor on the stage delivering the dialogue according to his script, waiting for the cue to come from the co-actor and watching the audience reactions to his performance.

However, there is an important point of difference between the ‘social role’ that an individual in society plays and a dramatic role played on the stage. While the dramatic role is fixed, unchangeable and simple in character, the individual’s social role can be made changeable and Multiple in character.

A person playing a multiple role may have to play them all concurrently or sequence-wise, according to the condition of his life or his occupation; and one of his roles may be so dominant that it will distinctly condition his individuality. An industrialist may be so engrossed in his occupational duties that he fails to play his roles as husband or father effectively.

Sociologists have noted that social roles can be played in different ways. Early in life, as we have discussed earlier in the chapter, a child begins the practice of role – playing by ‘playing-at-a-role” when it takes up a doll and enacts the roles of both mother and child with it. The child at this stage gathers certain ideas about certain standards of behaviour; it forms an idea as to how mother behave and how the child bears itself to the parent.

However, when ‘role-playing” begins, each individual plays his own role not only according to the definition of his particular role as set by society, but according to the actual expectation of the other party or parties in relation to whom he plays it. The individual who plays the role of the father must bear in mind the reactions of the child to his behaviour, and so will the child be conscious of the parents’ reactions to his behaviour and to any deviation on his part from the fixed standards expected by society.

It is no longer a one-sided affair as in the case of a child playing-at-a-role will a doll in hand. Sooner or later, the adult learns to play the role of the parent and the child more or less knows how to conform to the expected role of a child. A newly-married individual also in good time knows how to play the role of a husband or a wife.

It is true that in the performance of the role individual differences can become noticeable. No two fathers and no two daughters can behave exactly in the identical fashion, but minor degrees of variations from an idealized, normative standard are accepted by society. When the variation tends to be abusive or destructive of the standard, society frowns upon such role playing.

The concept of ‘role taking’ follows from the ‘looking-glass’ theory as Cooley puts it and, according to this analysis of behaviour, a person plays his or her role according to an assumed understanding of what the other persons in society envisage of such a role. A woman behaves as a coquette when she imagines that others in her group find her best in that role. Gradually, as a person gets more and more socialized, he changes from ‘role-playing’ to ‘role-taking’.

Individual’s Role in the Society

In modern society, it is generally believed that the rights of the individual triumph over the community, but the individual is not entirely free from the group. A person becomes part of the whole, willingly or unwillingly, by giving up some freedoms to attain safety and foster social bonds. For example, an individual must obey laws and social norms to be accepted by the community. According to certain philosophies, such as the social contract, the individual plays a vital role in allowing society to function.

The social contract is an idea that began with Plato but was expanded upon by British philosopher Thomas Hobbes. His view was that groups give power to elites in exchange for protection, but it was John Locke who highlighted that the individual voluntarily legitimizes people who hold authority.

According to Locke's view, humans come from a natural state, where they are free of authority in all forms. The individual comes from a place of natural freedom to form society and establish governance. While Locke believed that individuals are obligated to submit to authority, he also maintained that people had a duty to overthrow the state if it abused its power, an idea that became popular with the founding fathers of the United States.

Social Interaction

A social interaction is an exchange between two or more individuals and is a building block of society. Social interaction can be studied between groups of two (dyads), three (triads) or larger social groups. By interacting with one another, people design rules, institutions and systems within which they seek to live.

Erving Goffman was a sociologist who created a new field of study called microsociology, or social interaction. Social interaction is the process by which we act and react to those around us. In a nutshell, social interaction includes those acts people perform toward each other and the responses they give in return. Having a quick conversation with a friend seems relatively trivial.

Goffman argued that these seemingly insignificant forms of social interaction are of major importance in sociology and should not be overlooked. Social interactions include a large number of behaviors, so many that in sociology, interaction is usually divided into five categories. These are: exchange, competition, cooperation, conflict and coercion. Let's examine these five types with a bit more detail.

A social interaction or social relation is the way people talk and act with each other. It may include interactions in a teamfamily or bureaucracy. It includes any relationship between two or more individuals. It is a source of socialization and it characterizes all types of social relationships.

According to Gish and N.P, " Social interaction is the reciprocal influence human beings exert on each other through inter stimulation and response."

Culture and Cultural Elements of Pakistani Community

Our Culture:

Pakistan has a rich and unique culture that upholds traditions and conventions. Pakistani culture is rich in variety of dresses; these dresses are very colorful and prominent and give attractive look during national fairs and festivals

Fairs and Festivals

The culture of Pakistan has great tradition of fairs and festivals. These fairs are held in all parts of the country, Polo festival of Gilgit is prominent at national and international level.


Pakistani people are great lovers of sports and games. Modern games like hockey, cricket, football, badminton, squash, table tennis and lawn tennis are played throughout the country. Pakistan has produced great sportsmen in the past.


Pakistan enjoys great distinction in handicrafts at international level. Wooden furniture of Chiniot, sports goods of Sialkot and embroidery of Multan and Hyderabad is world famous.


Pakistan has a burgeoning tourism industry, due to the smorgasbord of cultures, peoples and landscapes it has to offer. Ancient civilization ruins of Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Taxila, to the hill stations of Murree, and the hiking tracks of Shogran and Siri Paaye, all have something to offer to each type of traveler. The northern parts of Pakistan have many old fortresses and towers. The Gilgit, Hunza and Chitral valleys are exceptionally beautiful sights to behold, along with the people here with typical costumes, folk dances, music and sports like polo and buzkashi.


Pakistani music is represented by a wide variety of forms. It ranges from traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal to more modern forms that blend traditional Pakistani music with Western music


Pakistan has a burgeoning tourism industry, due to the smorgasbord of cultures, peoples and landscapes it has to offer. Ancient civilization ruins of Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Taxila, to the hill stations of Murree, and the hiking tracks of Shogran and Siri Paaye, all have something to offer to each type of traveler. The northern parts of Pakistan have many old fortresses and towers. The Gilgit, Hunza and Chitral valleys are exceptionally beautiful sights to behold, along with the people here with typical costumes, folk dances, music and sports like polo and buzkashi.

Role of Education in Strengthening Pakistani Community

Education is the most important criteria for individual as well as collective development of a society and a state. And Primary education is the basic bedrock upon which whole building of education and human development stands. It provides the child with basic insight to a new world and provides him with the necessary tools to proceed through various fields of life. Unfortunately, the state of primary education system in Pakistan is very bleak. Leaving the business corporations of private education system and-how they excessively exploit naive parents—out of discussion, the situation of public education system is not any better. Millions of children are out of school and victims of child labor and the remaining who are going to any school are not getting any quality education either. Various factors are responsible for poor situation of primary education system which includes lack of infrastructure, dearth of qualified teachers, uneven student-teacher ratio, absence of laboratories, teacher absenteeism, non-use of modern techniques of teaching and poor teacher parents’ interaction.

Governments and higher authorities pay little or no heed to this poor situation which is seeking their due attention. The country’s budget preferences are evident of the fact that education is not a priority for our policymakers. If we want to compete with the developing world we would have to revisit our policies and set our priorities right. It is necessary to reform our primary education system on an emergency basis. First, a major chunk of our budget and energies should be allocated to reform and modernize our primary education system. Secondly, an efficient supervision system should be established which not only supervises the performance of teachers but also works as a discipline and accountability institution.

Such necessary measures when taken with honesty will not only help us resolving the basic problems but will encourage us to improve our primary education system. Considering every step, an initiative towards educational development system, Pakistan can compete in the developed world and prosper in the long run.

The education is now become one of the most defining enterprises of the 21st century with the emergence of globalization and increasing competition. In this fast world, education and technology are the basic keys for survival and progress of Pakistan respectively. Pakistan is determined to respond positively to emerging needs, opportunities and challenges of globalization. Education is one of the golden key that is considered as a big change and progress. Progress and prosperity of the country depends on the kind of education that is provided to the people.


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