Initial Problems of Pakistan
After getting independence on 14 Aug, 1047, Pakistan faced many problems in which main problems are given below;
After creating the two states, millions of Muslims whose areas became part of India migrated to Pakistan.
Migration of the people, commonly known as refugees, overburdened the already depleted economy and governmental machinery of the newly born Pakistan.
Kashmir is a small state situated north of the Sub-Continent that constitutes 80% of the Muslim population.
At the time of partition, Kashmir was ruled by Dogras which was a Hindu family. According to the partition plan of the Sub-Continent, Kashmir had to become part of Pakistan due to its overwhelmingly Muslim population and geographical closeness with Pakistan.
However, due to Indian conspiracies, Maharaja Hari Sing, the ruler of the Kashmir at that time, joined the Indian federation. Thus Kashmiris revolted against the Dogra forces, and with the help of the people of Pakistan, Kashmiris were able to liberate part of Kashmir, known as ‘Azad Kashmir .’Meanwhile, the United Nations Organization (UNO) intervened to resolve it peacefully between India and Pakistan.
UNO passed many resolutions calling for a referendum in Kashmir in which the people of Kashmir were to decide either to join Pakistan or India. However, UNO has failed to implement its resolutions, and Kashmir has become the main source of contention between Pakistan and India.
Two major wars (1948 and 1965) have been fought between the two countries over Kashmir.
Problems in Division of Assets
At the time of partition, it was decided that the assets of Sub-Continent were divided according to their respective proportion between India and Pakistan.
Unfortunately, the leadership of Congress tried to make Pakistan a weak country by denying her due shares in military hardware. Similarly, Pakistan was given only 20 crores out of her share of 75 crore rupees. The remaining 55 crore rupees were paid at a later stage.
Problems in Demarcation of Boundaries
For the boundaries distinction between Pakistan and India, a boundary commission was formed headed by Sir Cyril Radcliff. He was a close associate of Congress leadership and against the creation of Pakistan.
He committed injustices to Pakistan. Some of the Muslim majority areas of great importance, such as Gurdaspur, Murshidabad, Amritsar, and Ferozpur, were given to India to weak Pakistan. The states of Junagarh and Hyderabad were annexed to the Indian federation forcefully against the wishes of its people.
Problems in Canal Water Dispute
One of the outcomes of the injustices of the Boundary Commission was the water issue between Pakistan and India.
The headworks of many canals running in Pakistan were given to India, which allowed India to stop the water supply to Pakistan that she did in 1950. This brought both countries to the brink of war.
Finally, in 1960, the issue was resolved with the help of the World Bank. Three western rivers, Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab, were given to Pakistan, while the three eastern rivers, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej, were offered to India.
Problems in Constitutional Crisis
Every country needs to have rules through which the state machinery is run. This set of rules is called Constitution. After the independence of Pakistan, efforts were made to frame a constitution.
Still, the leadership of Pakistan was so preoccupied with the problems that they failed for almost nine years to give the country its own Constitution.
It was on 23 March 1956 that the first Constitution was implemented. During this period, the state of Pakistan was run through the Government of India Act 1935, which was adopted with some changes as a temporary constitution.
Problems in Security Constraints
Since independence, Pakistan’s foreign policy has been preoccupied and concerned with her defense, India was not happy with the division of the Sub-Continent, and she did not allow any opportunity to harm Pakistan.
Furthermore, as earlier mentioned, Pakistan was also denied her due share in military weapons. Pakistan had to join the Western-sponsored security pacts, i.e., SEATO and CENTO, to acquire needed military hardware to strengthen its defense.
The demise of the Quaid
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the main towering figure responsible for creating Pakistan.
He was a source of motivation and inspiration to the nation. He could lead the nation in the right direction.
Unfortunately, Quaid died shortly after the creation of Pakistan, and his untimely death left a huge political gap in the country that any other political leader couldn’t fill. Had Quaid-e-Azam been alive for some time, the history of Pakistan would have been changed.
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